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trict) 4 kilometers away from Kirillov and had previously repaired the re fec ­

tory church o f St. Sergius Radonezhski.

Although construction of the new walls was carried out after the model of

the walls o f Trinity-Sergius monastery built earlier Kirillov fortifications

surpassed them both in length (approximately 1.3 kilometers) and in the

size and battle might o f towers and walls. The new walls enveloped a much

broader area occupied previously by rows of shops, stables and o the r facili­

ties. The old walls on the side of the lake were retained, but the largest part

of the old fortifications o f the two monasteries and the «Ostrog» came to be

inside the monastery and lost all their defensive functions.

Fortifications of New Town follow the traditional type o f Russian for­

tress, at one time characteristic of European Middle Ages in general. By the

XVII cen tury this type yielded everywhere in the west to the fortress o f a

bastion type with low walls more fit to withstand mass artillery fire; but in

Russia they still built high brick walls with towers crowned by ten t roofs

right up to the time o f Peter the Great. Among the fortresses raised in the

XVII cen tury the Kirillov one was the mightiest. It is no wonder tha t in

1655 even at the very beginning of its construction Patriarch N icon named

Kirillo-Belozerski monastery among the three «great fortresses o f the Tzar».

The walls o f New Town formed three sides of a great quadrangle in ground

plan. High faceted towers were placed at its corners. They were named e i­

ther after service structures located near them or after the directions o f the

roads leading from the monastery. The north-west corner tower placed right

by the water was called B o l s h a y a M e r e z h e n n a y a or B e l o ­

z e r s k a y a ; the north and the highest one was called F e r a p o n t o v -

s к a у a (for some reason it was later called M o s ' c o v s k a y a); the east

one V o l o g o d s k a y a and the south one also on the bank was called

K u z n e t c h n a y a.

What is peculiar about the structure o f these towers it that a hollow brick

pier was erected in the cen te r of each one of them. One could climb to the

very top by means of wooden stairs located inside these piers. Each such

pier ended in a stone observatory, from which the environs o f the monastery

could be clearly viewed for many kilometers. Only the lower tier was roofed

with vaults, o the r coverings were of wood. Mighty timber joists are all that

is left o f them.

Besides four corner towers New Town has two entrance towers; K a z a ­

n s k a y a t o w e r is in the middle of the north-east wall facing the road

to Vologda (it was named after the then still wooden Kazanskaya chu rch

which stood before the monastery), K o s a y a t o w e r is in the middle

of the north-west wall (it was called Kosaya (crooked) for the passage formed

an angel inside it). These two towers being square in ground plan are ra the r

similar in architecture. They had no stone piers and their observatories were

made o f wood. All observatories were crowned by high pointed wooden tent

roofs replaced in the end of the XVIII — beginning of the XIX cen tury by

figured roofs with spires.

Construction of New Town fortress began with the corner tower of Ivanov­

ski monastery which remained intact during almost the whole period o f c o n ­